Bae Hoon Lee's Research Group

About our team

Our team consists of researchers with various backgrounds (chemistry, materials science, biology, and engineering). Our team focuses on the development of protein-based hydrogels for bioapplications including tissue engineering, drug screening, and 3D bioprinting. Protein-based materials exhibit excellent biocompatibility and biological activities. However, their poor mechanical properties limit their wide ranges of bioapplications. Here, we have functionalized protein materials via methacryloylation so that they can be solidified upon exposure to light. Photocrosslinking imparts the spatiotemporal control over biofabrication as well as tailorable mechanical properties. Photocuring is conducted under a mild condition in the presence of a photoinitiator, relatively leading to good biocompatibility. Photocurable protein-based hydrogels have been used to fabricate highly ordered 3D scaffolds/tissue analogues for 3D culture and drug screening applications. Besides, they have been used to print various tissue constructs. Photocurable protein-based hydrogels could become versatile materials for various bioapplications.

Research Area

  • Preparation of various photocurable protein-based hydrogels
  • Biofabrication of 3D tissue constructs with well-defined architecture
  • 3D printing of protein-based hydrogels with improved printability


    • Bae Hoon Lee, Young Moo Lee, Youn Soo Sohn, and Soo-chang Song*
      "A Thermosensitive Poly(organophosphazene) Gel" Macromolecules, 2002, 35, 3876. (IF: 5.985)
    • Bae Hoon Lee, Young Moo Lee, Youn Soo Sohn, and Soo-chang Song*
      "Thermosensitive and Hydrolysis-sensitive poly(organophosphazenes)" Polymer International, 2002, 51, 658. (IF: 2.574)
    • Bae Hoon Lee, Young Moo Lee, Youn Soo Sohn, and Soo-chang Song*
      "Synthesis and Characterization of Thermosensitive Poly(organophosphazenes) with Methoy-Poly(ethylene glycol) and Alkylamines as side groups" Bull. Korean Chem. Soc, 2002, 23, 549. (IF: 0.787)
    • Soo-chang Song, Sang Beom Lee, Bae Hoon Lee, Hyung-Wook Ha, Kyung-Tae Lee, and Youn Soo Sohn*
      "Synthesis and antitumor activity of novel thermosensitive platinum (II)-cyclotriphosphazene conjuagtes" J. Controlled Release, 2003, 90, 303. (IF: 9.776)
    • Bae Hoon Lee, Jeong-soo Park, Soo-chang Song*
      "Synthesis and Biocompatibility of Thermosensitive Poly(organophosphazene) Gels" Biomaterials Research, 2003, 7, 182. (Korea)
    • Bae Hoon Lee, and Soo-chang Song*
      "Synthesis and Characterization of Biodegradable Thermosensitive Poly(organophosphazene) Gels" Macromolecules, 2004, 37, 4533. (IF: 5.985)
    • Bae Hoon Lee, and Brent Vernon*
      "Copolymers of N-isopropylacrylamide, HEMA-lactate, and acrylic acid with time-dependent LCST for a bioresorbable carrier " Polymer International, 2005, 54, 418. (IF: 2.999)
    • Bae Hoon Lee, and Brent Vernon*
      "In-situ gelling erodible N-isopropylacrylamide copolymers" Macromolecular Biosciences, 2005, 5, 629. (IF: 4.979)
    • Bae Hoon Lee, Bianca West, Ryan McLemore, Christine Pauken, and Brent Vernon*
      "An In situ Injectable Physically and Chemically Gelling NIPAAm-based Copolymer system for embolization " Biomacromolecules, 2006, 7, 2059. (IF: 6.988)
    • Zhanwu Cui , Bae Hoon Lee, and Brent Vernon*
      “A New Hydrolysis-dependent Thermosensitive Polymer for Injectable, Degradable System " Biomacromolecules, 2007, 8, 1280-1286. (IF: 6.988)
    • Vicki Cheng, Bae Hoon Lee, Christine Pauken, and Brent Vernon*
      “Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-Poly(ethylene glycol))-Acrylate Simultaneously Physically and Chemically Gelling Polymer Systems " Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2007, 106, 1201-1207. (IF: 3.125)
    • Stephanie Robb, Bae Hoon Lee, Ryan McLemore, and Brent Vernon*
      “Simultaneously Physically and Chemically Gelling Polymer System utilizing a poly(NIPAAm-co-Cysteamine) Based Copolymer.” Biomacromolecules, 2007, 8, 2294-2300. (IF: 6.988)
    • Ryan McLemore, Bae Hoon Lee, Brent Vernon*
      “Surfactant effects on the kinetics of Michael-type addition reaction in reverse emulsion polymeric systems.” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B, 2009, 89, 191-198. (IF: 3.368)
    • Eric Henderson, Bae Hoon Lee, Zhanwu Cui, Ryan McLemore, Ted Brandon, Brent Vernon*
      “In vivo evaluation of temperature-sensitive polymer with time dependent LCST” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 2009, 90A, 1186-1197. (IF: 4.396)
    • Christine Leon, Bae Hoon Lee, Preul m, Ryan McLemore, Brent Vernon*
      “Synthesis and characterization of radio-opaque thermosensitive poly[N-isopropylacrylamide-2,2-(ethylenedioxy)bis(ethylamine)-2,3,5-triiodobenzamide]” Polymer international, 2009, 58, 847-850. (IF: 2.999)
    • Zhanwu Cui, Bae Hoon Lee, Christine Pauken, Brent Vernon*
      “Manipulating degradation time in N-isopropylacrylamide-based copolymer with hydrolysis-dependent LCST” Journal of Biomaterials Science, polymer edition, 2010, 21, 913. (IF: 3.517)
    • Ryan McLemore, Stephanie Robb, Bae Hoon Lee, Caplan Michael, Brent Vernon*
      “Michael-Type addition reactions in NIPAAm-cysteamine copolymers follow Second Order Rate Laws with Steric Hindrance” Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 2009, 37, 2416-2425. (IF: 3.934)
    • Brandon Blakely, Bae Hoon Lee, Celeste Riley, Ryan McLemore, Brent Vernon*
      “Formulation and Characterization of Radio-opaque Conjugated In Situ Gelling Materials” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research: Part B - Applied Biomaterials, 2010, 93B, 9-17. (IF: 3.368)
    • Bae Hoon Lee, Soo-chang Song*
      “Synthesis and Characterization of Thermosensitive Poly(organophosphazene) Gels with an Amino Functional Group " Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2011, 120, 998-1005. (IF: 3.125)
    • Bae Hoon Lee, Christine Leon, Ryan McLemore, Jorge Valdez Macias, Brent L. Vernon "Synthesis and characterization of Thermo-sensitive radio-opaque Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-PEG-2-iodobenzoate)” Journal of Biomaterials Science, polymer edition, 2011, 22, 2357-2367. (IF: 3.517)
    • Hanin H. Bearat, Bae Hoon Lee, Jorge Valdez, Brent L. Vernon*
      "Synthesis, Characterization and Properties of a Physically and Chemically Gelling Polymer System Using Poly(NIPAAm-co-HEMA-acrylate) and Poly(NIPAAm-co-cysteamine)." Journal of Biomaterials Science, polymer edition, 2011, 22, 1299-1318. (IF: 3.517)
    • Zhanwu Cui, Bae Hoon Lee, Christian Pauken, Brent Vernon*
      “Degradation, cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of NIPAAm-based thermosensitive, injectable and bioresorbable polymer hydrogels” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 2011, 98A, 159-166. (IF: 4.396)
    • Hanin H. Bearat, Bae Hoon Lee, Brent L. Vernon*
      “Comparison of properties between NIPAAm-based simultaneously physically and chemically gelling polymer systems for use in vivo” Acta biomaterialia, 2012, 8, 3629-42. (IF: 8.947)
    • Bae Hoon Lee, Hanin H. Bearat, Vicki Cheng, Ryan McLemore, Stephanie A. Robb, Zhanwu Cui, Allan Dovigi, Brent L. Vernon*
      "In vitro and In vivo demonstration of physically and chemically in situ gelling NIPAAm-based copolymer system” Journal of Biomaterials Science, polymer edition, 2013, 24, 1575-1588. (IF: 3.517)
    • Bae Hoon Lee, Stella Poh Hui Tin, Yun Xia, Terry W.J. Steele, Dror Seliktar, Havazelet Bianco-Peled*, Subbu S Venkatraman*
      “The influence of soluble PEG incorporation in a PEG-fibrinogen (PF) hydrogel on smooth muscle cell morphology and growth in 3-D encapsulation and culture” Journal of Biomaterials Science, polymer edition, 2014, 25, 394-409. (IF: 3.517)
    • Scott A. Irvine, Animesh Agrawal, Bae Hoon Lee, Huiyee Chua, Kok Yao Low, Marcelle Machluf, Subbu Venkatraman*
      “Printing cell-laden gelatin constructs by free-form fabrication and enzymatic protein crosslinking” Biomedical Microdevices, 2015, 17(1), 9915. (IF: 2.838)
    • Bae Hoon Lee, Myung Hee Kim, Jae Ho Lee, Dror Seliktar, Nam Joon Cho*, Lay Poh Tan*
      “Modulation of Huh 7.5 Spheroid Formation and Functionality using Modified PEG-based Hydrogels of Different Stiffness” PLoS ONE, 2015, 10(2): e0118123. (IF: 3.240)
    • Animesh Agrawal+, Bae Hoon Lee+, Scott A. Irvine, Jia An, Ramya Bhuthalingam, Vaishali Singh, Kok Yao Low, Chee. Kai. Chua, and Subbu S. Venkatraman* (+first authors)
      “Smooth muscle cell alignment and phenotype control by meltspun polycaprolactone (PCL) fibers for seeding of tissue engineered blood vessels.” International Journal of Biomaterials 2015 (4), Article ID434876, 8 pages. (IF: 3.39)
    • Bae Hoon Lee+, Hitomi Shirahama+, Nam Joon Cho*, Lay Poh Tan* (+first authors) “Efficient and controllable synthesis of highly substituted gelatin-methacrylamide for mechanically stiff hydrogels” RSC Adv., 2015, 5, 106094-106097. (IF: 3.361)
    • Cao Ye, Bae Hoon Lee, Havazelet Bianco-Peled*, Subbu S Venkatraman*
      “Synthesis of stiffness-tunable and cell-responsive gelatin-Poly (ethylene glycol) hydrogel for 3-dimensional cell encapsulation” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.35779. (IF: 4.396)
    • Hitomi Shirahama+, Bae Hoon Lee+, Lay Poh Tan*, Nam Joon Cho* (+first authors)
      “Precise Tuning of Facile One-pot Gelatin Methacryloyl(GelMA) Hydrogel Synthesis” Scientific Report, 2016, 6, 31036. (IF: 4.379)
    • Bae Hoon Lee+*, Nathaniel Lum+, Li Yuan Seow+, Pei Qi Lim, Lay Poh Tan* (+first authors, *corresponding authors)
      “Synthesis and Characterization of Types A and B Gelatin Methacryloyl for Bioink Applications” Materials, 2016, 9(10), 797. (IF:3.623)
    • Bae Hoon Lee+, Hitomi Shirahama+, Myung Hee Kim+, Jae Ho Lee, Lay Poh Tan*, Nam Joon Cho* (+first authors)
      “Colloidal Templating of Highly Ordered Gelatin Methacryloyl-Based Hydrogel Platforms for Three-Dimensional Tissue Analogues” NPG Asia Materials, 2017, 9, e412. (IF:10.481)
    • Miaomiao Zhou+, Bae Hoon Lee+, Lay Poh Tan* (+first authors)
      “A dual crosslinking strategy to tailor rheological properties of gelatin methacryloyl” International Journal of Bioprinting, 2017, 3(2), 130. (IF:6.638)
    • Wei Shan Lim+, Kenneth Chen+, Tsung Wen Chong, Gordon Minru Xiong, William R Birch, Jisheng Pan, Bae Hoon Lee, Pei Shan Er, Abhijit Vijay Salvekar, Subbu S Venkatraman*, Yingying Huang* “A bilayer swellable drug-eluting ureteric stent: Localized drug delivery to treat urothelial diseases” Biomaterials, 2018, 165, 25-38. (IF:12.499)
    • Xiaoyan Wang, Brian Key, Bae Hoon Lee, Huaqiong Li*, Qingsong Ye*
      “Potential Roles of Dental Pulp Stem Cells in Neural Regeneration and Repair” Stem Cells International, 2018, ID 1731289, 15 pages. (IF:5.443)
    • Jing Zheng, MengXiang Zhu, Gaia Ferracci, Nam-Joon Cho*, Bae Hoon Lee*
      “Hydrolytic stability of methacrylamide and methacrylate in gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) and decoupling of gelatin methacrylamide from GelMA through hydrolysis” Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, 2018, 219, 1800266. (DOI: 10.1002/macp.201800266) (IF:2.527)
    • Fanhui Kong, Xueming Niu, Bae Hoon Lee*, Kun Wei* (*corresponding authors)
      “5-Hydroxymethylfurfural mitigates lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammation via suppression of MAPK, NF-κB, and mTOR activation in RAW 264.7 cells” Molecules, 2019, 24, 275. (IF:4.411)
    • Miaomiao Zhou, Bae Hoon Lee*, Yu Jun Tan, Lay Poh Tan* (*corresponding authors)
      “Microbial Transglutaminase Induced Controlled Crosslinking of Gelatin Methacryloyl to Tailor Rheological Properties for 3D Printing” Biofabrication, 2019, 11, 025011. (IF:9.954)
    • MengXiang Zhu, Yingying Wang, Gaia Ferracci, Jing Zheng, Nam-Joon Cho*, Bae Hoon Lee* (*corresponding authors)
      “Gelatin methacryloyl with a high degree of controllability and batch-to-batch consistency for hydrogel fabrication” Scientific Reports, 2019 9:6863. (IF:4.379)
    • Mintu Pal, Huizhi Chen, Bae Hoon Lee, Yun Sheng Yip, Nguan Soon Tan*, Lay Poh Tan*
      “Epithelial-mesenchymal transition of cancer cells using bioengineered hybrid scaffold composed of hydrogel/3D-fibrous framework” Scientific Reports, 2019 9:6863 (IF:4.379)
    • Fanhui Kong+, Conghui Fan, Yulian Yang, Bae Hoon Lee*+, and Kun Wei* (*corresponding and +first authors)
      “5-hydroxymethylfurfural-embedded poly (vinyl alcohol)/sodium alginate hybrid hydrogels accelerate wound healing” International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2019, 138, 933. (IF: 6.953)
    • Dattatrya Shetti, Bao Zhang, Conghui Fan, Canlong Mo, Bae Hoon Lee*, and Kun Wei* (*corresponding authors)
      “Low dose of Paclitaxel Combined with XAV939 Attenuates Metastasis, Angiogenesis, and Growth in Breast Cancer by Suppressing Wnt Signaling” cells (MDPI), 2019, 8, 892. (IF:6.60)
    • aia Ferracci, Mengixang Zhu, Mohammed Shahrudin Ibrahim, Gamaliel Ma, Teng Fei Fan, Bae Hoon Lee*, and Nam-Joon Cho* (*corresponding authors)
      “Photocurable Albumin Methacryloyl Hydrogels as a Versatile Platform for Tissue Engineering” ACS Applied Bio Materials, 2020, 3, 920-934.
    • Ye Cao, Bae Hoon Lee, Scott Alexander Irvine, Yee Shan Wong, Havazelt Bianco Peled*, and Subramanian Venkatraman*
      “Inclusion of CrossLinked Elastin in Gelatin/PEG Hydrogels Favourably Influences Fibroblast Phenotype” Polymers, 2020, 12, 670. (IF:4.329)
    • Dattatrya Shetti and Bae Hoon Lee*
      “Pristane-induced mammary carcinomas” Methods in Cell Biology, 2021, 163, 187-195. (IF:1.441)
    • Xueming Niu, Gaia Ferracci, Mian Lin, Xiona Rong, Mengxiang Zhu, Nam-Joon Cho* and Bae Hoon Lee* (*corresponding authors)
      “Highly substituted decoupled gelatin methacrylamide free of hydrolabile methacrylate impurities: An optimum choice for long-term stability and cytocompatibility” International Journal of Biological Macromolecues, 2021, 167, 479-490. (IF: 6.953)
    • Ajay Tijore, Bae Hoon Lee, Lay Poh Tan*
      “Bioactive micropatterned platform to engineer myotube-like cells from stem cells” Biofabrication, 2021, 13, 035017. (IF: 9.954)
    • Chenyuan Gao, Wan Ting Sow, Yingying Wang, Yili Wang, Dejun Yang, Bae Hoon Lee, Dražen Matičić, Lian Fang, Huaqiong Li* and Chunwu Zhang*
      “Hydrogel composite scaffold with attenuated immunogenicity component for bone tissue engineering application” Journal of Materials Chemistry B, 2021, 9, 2033-2041. (IF: 6.331) 10.1088/1758-5090/abd157
    • TarunAgarwal, Dishary Banerjee, Rocktotpal Konwarh, Timothy Esworthy, Jyoti Kumari, Valentina Onesto, Prativa Das, Bae Hoon Lee, Frank A.D.T.G. Wagener, Pooyan Makvandi, Virgilio Mattoli, Sudip Kumar Ghosh, Tapas Kumar Maiti, Lijie Grace Zhang, Ibrahim T.Ozbolat
      “Recent Advances in Bioprinting Technologies for Engineering Hepatic Tissue” Materials Science and Engineering: C, 2021, 123, 112013. (IF: 7.328)
    • Xueming Niu, Shuqian Wan, Xiona Rong, Mian Lin, Nabila Mehwish, Kun Wei,* and Bae Hoon Lee* (*corresponding authors)
      “Facile Fabrication of Povidone Iodine‐Embedded Polytetrafluoroethylene Superhydrophobic Films with Improved Antiadhesive and Bactericidal Properties in Bacterial Environments” Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, 2021, 167, 479-490. (IF: 4.367)
    • Fanhui Kong, Nabila Mehwish, Xueming Niu, Minzhao Lin, Xiona Rong, Fangbin Hu, and Bae Hoon Lee* (*corresponding author) “Personalized hydrogels for individual health care: Preparation, features, and applications in tissue engineering” Materials Today Chemistry, 2021, 22, 100612. (IF: 8.301)
    • Yuan Chen, Meng Jiao Zhai, Nabila Mehwish, Meng Die Xu, Yi Wang, Yi Xuan Gong , Man Man Ren, Hui Deng*, Bae Hoon Lee* (*corresponding author) "Comparison of globular albumin methacryloyl and random-coil gelatin methacryloyl: Preparation, hydrogel properties, cell behaviors, and mineralization" International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2022, 204, 692. (IF: 6.953)


    • Youn Soo Sohn, Soo-chang Song and Bae Hoon Lee, "Biodegradable and Thermosensitive Polyphosphazenes and Their Preparation Method", PCT/KR00/00059 (2001).
    • Youn Soo Sohn, Soo-Chang Song and Bae Hoon Lee "Biodegradable and Thermosensitive Polyphosphazenes and Their Preparation Method". U.S. Pat. 6,319,984 (2002).
    • Soo-Chang Song and Bae Hoon Lee “Thermosensitive poly (organophosphazenes), preparation method thereof and injectable thermosensitive polyphosphazene hydrogels using the same.” U.S. Pat 7259225 (2007).
    • 一种用于细胞和组织培养的高取代白蛋白甲基丙烯酰基水凝胶的制备方法(201911170929. 5)_2019年11月26日

    Book Chapters

    • Bae Hoon Lee*, Ajay Tijore, C. R. I. Lam, Hui Chen, K. M. Kumar, and Lay Poh tan* “Engineering Stem Cell Niche and Stem Cell–Material Interactions” Smart Materials for Tissue Engineering: Fundamental Principles, Chapter: Engineering Stem Cell Niche and Stem Cell–Material Interactions, Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry, Editors: Qun Wang, 2016, pp.163-196. DOI: 10.1039/9781782626756-00163 (December 13, 2016).
    • Hitomi Shirahama and Bae Hoon Lee* “Hydrogels: Design, Synthesis and Application in Drug Delivery and Regenerative Medicine”, Chapter 15: Preparation of Photocurable Hydrogels, Publisher: CRC Pres, Editors: Thakur Raghu Raj Singh, Garry Laverty, Ryan Donnelly, 2018, pp.265-283. ISBN 9781498748612 (February 28, 2018).